Structural and Human Vulnerability

ESI Security Technology software can address blast and fire impact and effects on structures/facilities and humans due to: single, concurrent, and sequential explosions. Using special models, fast (minute scale) estimation of thermal loads, blast loads, and combined thermo-blast load-induced damage effects can be provided. The models encapsulate blast ingress into building openings, internal blast propagation within a building, and its structural damage effect, as well as progressive collapse of structures.

Assessments of structural and human vulnerability are performed through modeling of the target building including details on building layout, geometry, and material properties of structural components such as column, beam, wall, slab, window and door. If details are unavailable, or time to acquire them is short, first-approximation assessments based on standard structural models would suffice. ESI Security Technology's analysis tool uses built-in parameterized databases (libraries) of standard residential buildings/structures, threats, target hardening retrofits, components, and materials. This enables the user to rapidly (relative to setting up a building model from scratch) construct 3D models of complex blast scenes using CAD and Geographical Information System (GIS) user-friendly interfaces. To perform structural assessments, state-of-the-art models are used to generate simulated buildings with different shapes made of steel and reinforced concrete frame structures.

To analyze effects of mitigation measures and increase a facility's resistance to blast/fire attack, the software includes models of structural retrofits (such as glazing change, wall or column hardening, change of a building internal layout) and hardening of a facility's external layout (increasing stand-off distances, adding barrier walls, removing first-floor windows, changing no-parking zone layout). A comprehensive library of standard commercially available blast resistant retrofit components and measures has been compiled and integrated into the analysis framework.

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